Inspiration allows air to be moved into the lungs and requires the contraction of various muscles:
– The diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract
– When the diaphragm contracts, it flattens, pressing down on the abdominal contents and lifting the thoracic cavity. This leads to an increase in the volume of the thoracic cavity.
The diaphragm is the most important muscle in inspiration as it amounts to 60 to 80% of the work in ventilation.
– Contraction of the external intercostal muscles leads to an elevation of the ribs and sternum
– These actions cause an increase in the volume of the lungs
– According to Boyle’s law, an increase in the volume of air results in a decrease in the pressure of air within the lungs
Pressure outside the lungs is larger compared to the inside and air rushes into the lungs as gas molecules move from an area of high pressure to low pressure.
[Source: Mechanics of Breathing]



The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerves are paired but are normally referred to in the singular. It is the longest nerve of the autonomic nervous system in the human body.
[Source: Vagus Nerve]


In medicine, a nebulizer is a aerosol delivery device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs. Nebulizers are commonly used for the treatment of asthma, cystic fibrosis, COPD and other respiratory diseases or disorders.
Nebulizers use oxygen, compressed air or ultrasonic power to break up solutions and suspensions into small aerosol droplets that can be directly inhaled from the mouthpiece of the device. An aerosol is a mixture of gas and solid or liquid particles.
[Source: Nebulizer, Aerosol Delivery Devices Timeline]


Mycobacterium vaccae is a nonpathogenic species of the Mycobacteriaceae family of bacteria that lives naturally in soil. Its name originates from the Latin word, vacca (cow), since it was first cultured from cow dung in Austria. Research areas being pursued with regard to killed Mycobacterium vaccae vaccine include immunotherapy for allergic asthma, cancer, depression, leprosy, psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema and tuberculosis. [Source: Mycobacterium vaccae]

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Does immunotherapy with heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae offer hope for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis?
SRL172 (killed Mycobacterium vaccae) in addition to standard chemotherapy improves quality of life without affecting survival
The ability of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae to stimulate a cytotoxic T-cell response to an unrelated protein is associated with a 65 kilodalton heat-shock protein
What Are Soil-Based Antibiotics?
Antidepressant Microbes in Soil: How Soil Makes your Brain Happy

Mycobacterium vaccae.png


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Europe’s dirty air kills 400,000 people every year
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These are the world’s most polluted cities
Toxic air: mother of girl who died from asthma calls on politicians to be braver
“Poor” air in Brussels is “good” in Krakow – EU report highlights two-tier Europe and calls air quality limits “very undemanding”

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